The collection partially originates from the private collection of Vañó Silvestre, who was behind the setting up of the museum and its first director, although the majority was formed with material from the Provincial Museum of Jaén since, as mentioned above, the Museum of Úbeda was set up as a part of the Museum of Jaén. The main part of the permanent collection in the Museum comes from when it was set up, however, it has grown with some donations from individuals and with the material from excavations in the area, mainly from Úbeda and nearby sites.
Therefore, most of the pieces on exhibition are items deposited by the Museum of Jaén, which originate from donations, for example, as in the case of the Cazabán collection made up of archaeological material from diverse cultures, such as excavations in the province. Among these, we should mention La Calera (La Carolina), which contains pre-historic materials; Castellones de Ceal (Hinojares), with important ceramic remains from the Iberian period, Collado de los Jardines or Castellar de Santisteban, for the Iberian ex-votos, both bronze and terracotta.
As regards the material with which the collection has grown, the archaeological remains from the city itself are worth special mention, in addition to the remains from excavations of the former courts, the former city wall, the Eras del Alcázar, or the Casa Mudéjar which is the Museum headquarters. To these, we should add the nearby sites such as Úbeda la Vieja (former Salaria), Arroyo de la Dehesa, La Esperilla, cortijo de doña Aldonza, to mention a few.
Some objects come from systematic excavations, such as those from the former courts, or from emergency excavations such as those from Eras del Alcázar, but many others are due to donations from individuals, such as those belonging to a Roman funerary monument from the cortijo de doña Aldonza and donated by Mr. Gámez Latorre and Mr. Díaz Saro.