The initial collection was comprised of church properties confiscated in the 19th century and from the Itálica excavations, and, since the 1940s, the municipal collection, deposited by the Town Council of Sevilla. Currently, the museum has more than 60,000 pieces, including property of the museum and items deposited.
The first pieces which made up the objects in the Museum were the busts and medals collected around 1870 by Mr. Francisco de Bruna, the Alcázar commander, in the gallery at the entrance of this building. The sculptures of Trajan and Hadrian completed this collection; these pieces were discovered during the excavations which Mr. de Bruna carried out in Santiponce in 1788, and not forgetting the sculpture of Diana, found in 1900.
To these collections, we can add the objects discovered in the official excavations in Itálica, carried out between 1839 and 1842 by Mr. Ivo de la Cortina, in addition to other remains discovered in the Roman city, from 1862, by Mr. Demetrio de los Ríos.
In 1835, the Museum Committees were formed in order to collect all the works of art originating from confiscations, whose task was completed by the Historic and Artistic Committee for Monuments in the Province of Sevilla, set up in 1844. These, especially the latter, are to thank for an extraordinary amount of work in the search and purchase of numerous archaeological findings under its administration, in excavations sponsored by the State, and chance discoveries or the acquisition of pieces from individuals. The Inventory drawn up by the Monuments Committee was made up of 335 objects.
Throughout the years, the collection has grown due to archaeological materials collected in the excavations carried out in the sites of the province.