The Provincial Archaeological Museum of Sevilla was set up as a result of the 1867 Decree on Archaeological Museums, at that time called Antiques Museum. The interventions by the Museums Committee in Sevilla were decisive in the development of the museum. This Committee was set up in 1835 in order to take charge of the art objects seized from the convents, and the Province Committee for Monuments, set up in its place in 1844. The initial collection is comprised of the findings from the Itálica excavations, gathered together around 1780 by Mr. Francisco de Bruna in the access gallery to the Reales Alcázares.
Its first headquarters was located in the Alcázar, but from 1875, the collection was moved to the former Convento de la Merced, where the Museum to display paintings was also located. The installation was carried out under the direction of the architect Mr. Demetrio de los Ríos, who fitted out three of the lower galleries of the Convent. On 21 November 1879, the official declaration of the Antiques Museum of Sevilla was drawn up with Mr. Manuel de Campos y Munilla being appointed director.
Once the works had been completed, in 1880 the museum was inaugurated, with architectural series, sculptures, epigraphs and ceramics, and had immediate success with the public; exceeding the number of visits, (with almost 12,000), of many national museums.
However, the lack of space in this building was increasingly becoming an issue, as it was not possible to hold an adequate exhibition of the collections, despite the granting of two new halls in 1904. This serious problem was resolved when the City Council of Sevilla handed over the Pabellón de Bellas Artes for the Ibero-American Exposition in 1929, constructed by Aníbal Gonnzález in the Parque de María Luisa, to the Ministry for National Education, by means of an agreement signed 31 December 1941, as the new headquarters of the Provincial Archaeological Museum.
The City Council also handed over the Provincial Archaeological Museum, as a deposit, the objects from the Municipal Archaeological Museum, set up in 1886 under the initiative of Mr. José Gestoso and inaugurated on 28 March 1895 by the Infanta Dª.? María Luisa Fernanda de Bourbon. These objects were found conserved in the Torre de D. Fadrique.
Having carried out and checked the refurbishment works of the building, the various collections were transferred there, inaugurating the new installations of the museum on 25 May 1946, with eight halls, a Library and Administration. On 1 March 1962, the building and museum collections were declared Historic-Artistic Monument.
Finally, throughout the 1970s, the museum was reorganised, with extension and improvement works being carried out, and nineteen additional halls were inaugurated, giving a current total of 27.